Posted: February 15th, 2022
Water Supply Challenges in Developing Countries
In Urban areas
Access to clean and safe drinking water is one of the millennium development goals. The problem of water supply begins with growth in population and climate change. Since 1990, the world population has grown at a consistent rate of 1.3%, and it currently stands and 7 billion people. The number of people moving from rural to urban areas has increased by 51%. The trend is expected to continue. The massive urban migration is mainly witnessed in developing countries where people move to towns in search of jobs and good life. The result is the growth of informal settlements, commonly known as slums. The informal settlements lack both water supply and sewerage disposal systems, and they create a perfect environment for the breeding of waterborne diseases. The major challenge in the urban settlement schemes in developing countries is the government’s inability to provide people with enough water due to population pressure and lack of resources. Third-world countries also lack the technologies required to harvest and distribute water to their people, especially those living in informal settlements.
The main source of drinking water in developing countries include rivers and boreholes. Water is collected from the river, cleaned, and channeled to the cities through pipes. The main challenge with this water source is that, in most cases, it is inadequate. Some third-world countries have water supply pipes that have been in existence for more than half a decade. During the installation time, those water sources were enough to cater to the needs of people living in urban areas those days. The rapid increase in population has led to increased demand for this commodity. The other source of drinking water from urban areas in third world countries are boreholes sunk by the local governments. Some countries have boreholes located at an average distance of 5kms apart. Water from these boreholes acts as the primary water source since piped water is unreliable. Some families fetch water from open flowing rivers polluted by sewerage disposals and effluent from industries. Water trucks are also common in many developing countries where they sell drinking water to families using barrels. Since many people in developing countries lack good income, very few can afford to buy water. The only solution for sustainable water supply in these countries is combined efforts from their governments, the world health organization, the world bank, and other organizations to pull resources together and come up with a lasting solution.
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