Posted: February 15th, 2022
The causal claim that minimum wage legislation will lead to higher unemployment illustrates internal validity(Trochim, n.d). Establishing a policy for minimum wage requirements in all fields is in good faith of helping the majority of the population rise above poverty levels by increasing their income. Wage increases mean that employers must cut down on the hiring efforts to maintain the current workforce. Alternatively, they can send their workers home to reduce paying salaries. As a result, it leads to an increase in unemployment levels.
Internal validity is only applicable to relevant situations with a causal effect relationship (McDavid et al., 2019). In this case, the implementation of the legislation will be assessed whether it can affect the unemployment rates. Internal validity is not applicable in observational or descriptive cases since the significant consideration is the result. This presents a significant problem since the final outcome may not be due to the legislation implementation alone. There could be other issues, such as increasing the number of intellectual skills in the market.
In addition, a causal relationship does not pay attention to the time of implementing the program. There can be other external factors in a certain period that can alter the present outcomes. This problem can occur at any time in the program design. For instance, when it is established that too much alcohol consumption has led to increases in the number of accidents experienced, there can be a law that stipulates the alcohol consumption levels and the behavior code. At the same time, there are also other laws such as the use of seatbelts which had already been established that can reduce road accidents.
In the second scenario, capital punishment deters crime; there can be different forms of validity issues in internal and external validity. First, the internal validity will assess the relationship between capital punishment and reduction in crime. In this cross-sectional study, the sample size taken for analysis is not the same as that selected for the control group. This means that the analysis results cannot be used to compare the two groups since there are so many differences within the group.
There are also external validity issues that can arise from the scenario. External validity often considers whether the current study outcomes can be applied in general settings(Esterling & Brady, 2021). The problem comes in due to applying the relationship in one environment. In a society where there is a lot of violence, there should be measures that help in reducing the rate of crime for the safety of the public and the available resources. Capital punishment can be applied to impose the fear of the consequences; however, this cannot be applied in a different setting with a general outlook of peace.
The results of the implantation of a program in different settings vary due to the preexisting conditions in that environment (Orare et al., 2021). Initiation of programs that do not serve the interest of the current community may have limited or no success. This is because the implementation does not help to solve a problem that has been a significant menace to society.
Esterling, K. M., & Brady, D. (2021). The necessity of construct and external validity for … Retrieved December 21, 2021, from https://www.datascienceassn.org/sites/default/files/The%20Necessity%20of%20Construct%20and%20External%20Validity%20for%20Generalized%20Causal%20Claims.pdf
McDavid, J. C., Huse, I., & L., H. L. R. (2019). Program evaluation and performance measurement an introduction to practice. SAGE.
Olarte Parra, C., Bertizzolo, L., Schroter, S., Dechartres, A., & Goetghebeur, E. (2021, May 20). Consistency of causal claims in observational studies: A review of papers published in a General Medical Journal. BMJ Open. Retrieved December 21, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141434/
Trochim, P. W. M. K. (n.d.). Internal validity. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved December 21, 2021, from https://conjointly.com/kb/internal-validity/
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