Posted: February 18th, 2022
Racism in the United Kingdom Universities
Racism in the United Kingdom Universities
Education is a crucial factor in our daily lives. Education has been given priority in many states to ensure students receive education, especially in the United Kingdom. Students in the United Kingdom state consider education as a crucial factor. According to Wong, 2020(p14), United Kingdom institutions are the best in providing an education system to the students partaking in studies for higher education in the state. Concerning McDuff, 2020(p.100), individuals have been making applications to travel abroad with a positive mindset that they will receive the best intellectual rights. Racism is experienced across UK universities. According to the research report, in 2020, between the years 2015/2017, 80 incidents arose of racism. The racial incidents had risen by Sixty one per cent in the United Kingdom universities between the years 2015 and 2017.
The United Kingdom is believed to have sufficient resources to offer to the students during their course studies all through the academic semesters.
According to the research of Reay, 2018/09/01 states that racism had spread across the nation that created differences between the black and white students openly. Black students who had applied for scholarships had developed a positive attitude toward American studies. Black students received harassment from the institutions in that they could not enjoy even a single right student in the state. EHRC, 2019(p.86) also states that treatment was also transferred to the black students who had spent their lives in the state as citizens. It is brought into the limelight that white students could not access the same opportunities as blacks while pursuing studies in academic institutions such as colleges and universities. The blacks never enjoyed the same benefits as those white students. Racism existed a long time ago, and it persists even in the present days in UK universities. Black students face several challenges in various colleges and universities. The United Kingdom reported over 60000 racism incidents in various universities every five years. According to EHRC, 2019(p.96), the incidences based on racism concerned the blacks in the United Kingdom universities were so high that blacks were leaving uncomfortably.
Discrimination on race has affected many black students in multiple universities. The race has led to various impacts in universities. Regarding this research paper, racism in universities has negatively affected black students. The implications on race in the United Kingdom include discrimination, student leadership, government rights, Stress, unequal opportunities, academic performance, school dropouts, unequal resources, Government policies, school choice, parenting style, graduation rates, intersectionality, underfunding rates.
The act of discrimination has affected students in the United Kingdom greatly, depending on race. The black is undermined regarding the colour of their skin. Black students in the United Kingdom face several challenges while pursuing their studies. The discrimination challenges the black students faced in higher institutions in the United Kingdom displayed inequality among the students. The white students are given great opportunities and chances. The education quality the whites were given was equal, and therefore, they emerged to be the best with better grades. Equality acts, 2014(p.314) states that currently, Equality has been called for in the institutions to better the opportunities for both blacks and white students compared to the past years. Education facilities were shared to avoid discrimination. The back students could not share the same resources, such as books while studying in the same institution. Students studying in the state include both blacks and whites. Discrimination is rampant in colleges and universities that hinder black students from pursuing their studies at peace. The white students consider themselves better than the blacks regarding their ethnic groups. The black students are judged depending on their physical appearance, leading to different categories of students in the universities. Discrimination has shown the black to lower their self-esteem as students. The black students could not associate with the white students, which later led to a generation of ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. They view themselves as less significant in society. Most students have developed Stress since they are valued as less fortunate despite gender and skin colour. Two categories arose, which was unfair for both: students pursuing studies to improve their living standards.
Stress developed in blacks tremendously, for the blacks kept questioning themselves why they were not considered equal to the whites since both are human beings. According to the statistics of the UK, the number of black students who were studying was forty-two per cent. The population of black students was less by twenty per cent than white students who enrolled for higher education, which were sixty-two in the year 2020. (Advance HE, 2020)
In the United Kingdom, students intermingled from various states to advance their education levels. Students interact with different ages, gender, family background, and also those with disabilities in the education institutions.)According to Gillborn 2015(p.28) states that the black students with disabilities faced harassment from the white students due to their physical disabilities. According to Bilge, 2020, Students experienced several disabilities, such as the disabled and those who suffered from eye problems mental disabilities. They received cruel treatment that made the students underperform in academics. Students from unfortunate families were underrated due to the financial instability they experienced in the community, for they were considered to be the poorest in the community due to the low-class level. The whites are considered to be of the higher class in the institutions hence could not receive equal treatment. Regarding this research, the black students were grouped and separated depending on abilities and classes, creating a division of classes.
Stress is a significant factor affecting students in universities. They can’t access better treatment and consideration than white students. Most students struggle to meet their expectations, but it is challenging. When it comes to academics, the whites could not work at any given cost. Life was made better, and they enjoyed campus life with no struggles. According to Solórzano 2002, (p.273), Stress has led students to develop depression due to racial discrimination. Students drop out of school because they cannot cope with the unfavorable school life. Some black students develop into chronic madness due to Stress. When Stress overwhelms students, they cannot take their academics so seriously because of the negative mindset from learning institutions and their environs. Some students abuse drugs that ruin their thinking capabilities hence dropping out of school. According to the research, Stress has driven most black students in colleges and universities due to hard work, not giving positive academic results. Stress is among the significant challenges caused by racism in the United Kingdom universities. Academic Excellency requires a relaxed mindset to attain better results at the end of the semester. White students did not face diverse stress challenges as black students. They are dealing with the research. There was an increased number of school drops out of the black students, which had risen by forty-two per cent. Advance HE, 2020 (p. 275) states that in 2017, more than one in 10 black students dropped out of school due to racial Stress.
Universities are made up of students from different ethnic groups to learn. Besides government leadership offered in the state, students are also given chances to control their institutions. Students are given opportunities to elect leaders to lead them in the institution. Students are granted options to guide other students in various positions in the universities. Regarding the University of Suffolk, 2020, racism has been a significant challenge facing universities in the state. The black students were no longer granted equal opportunities to participate as student leaders. According to the research of Advance HE, 2020(p.201), only thirteen per cent of black students are initiated in the student leadership of the United Kingdom universities. The whites were the ones with more excellent opportunities to lead the institutions. The blacks who were considered less fortunate were never granted the same opportunities as white students. The white students had a defeatist mentality of being governed by blacks. Therefore the blacks did not enjoy any single chance while studying. The white students were dictating the black students. The blacks did not get opportunities to govern other students widely affected their academic performance since they were not considered at any chance. Therefore, concerning the research, racism has denied most black students better opportunities to present their plight to the student council. However, it has contributed to fewer representation positions to the university council, thus initiating inequality in universities.
Students pursuing studies in the same institutions have the right to be granted equal opportunities in studies. In case of an option, students should be given a chance without discrimination. It is disgusting since whites’ opportunities while blacks are denied them. For instance, leadership in the university should be offered without considering a student’s race. Jobs are primarily provided to the white students leaving the whites tarmacking in the field. Concerning the statistics research on Advanced HE, 2020 (p.112) equality, only one per cent is the black lecturers in the higher education institutions in the UK. The most performing students in the institutions are the whites hence grabbing the opportunities highly. Concerning McDuff, 2020 (p.103), in the employment sector, the whites are considered to leave the black citizens in despair without jobs. Most blacks face challenges, but they lack someone to listen to them since they are less considered in society. Resources in the universities were given to the white students that contributed to the excellent performance of the whites. Considering the research, the percentage of blacks is too high for they are denied equal opportunities as students in the same institutions. Denial of opportunities as black students due to racism has greatly dragged the standards of students in most universities.
Education changes the living standards of individuals in society. Students find the need to further their studies to acquire knowledge that helps an individual and members of the community. Racism has spread in the United Kingdom universities, and it has caused effects to the blacks studying from the state. When academic performance is compared between the white and the black students, the whites perform best. Students are ranked depending on gender and family backgrounds. Concerning Gillborn, 2013(p39), the situation worsened when blacks were forced to study in different schools from whites. Rejection forced them to form a group on their own that could favour their well-being while living in the same state as the whites. Schools for black Americans were started to support studies of black in the state. The quest of black schools did not improve the academic performance of the blacks. The white students were given top positions and qualifications in schools. According to Liyanage, 7/23/2020 states that the awards were meant for the best performers, who were the white students. Concerning this research, race has undermined the black Americans in the United Kingdom universities.
The result of racism in the universities was the poor performance of the blacks. Poor academic performance of the blacks demoralized the blacks to the extent of developing a negative attitude towards academics. Whoever, no matter the hard work, no way the blacks could top in academics while mingling with whites in the same universities. The whites could not attend classes as required, but they would emerge at the top with better grades, leaving behind the black students concentrating on their academics fully. According to Advance HE, 2020(p.66), enrolment of black students for higher education dropped by nine per cent compared to 2002 and 1980. In the year 2002, the number declined to thirteen per cent compared to the enrollment of the year 1980, which was seventeen per cent.
Black students have faced hostile environments in the United Kingdom universities. The blacks’ settings were so cruel that the students could not enjoy any given right as other white students. The challenge has extended since the past period.) According to the research of Jivraj, 2020 corruption in the universities has rampantly spread in that black students could not access equal chances in schools. Changes were established and identified by the African support that has fought for the rights of the students in the American universities. According to the research, Lingayah, 2020(p.56), African movements were formed to fight for the rights of blacks in various universities. Racism had spread across the states in that it made the life of the black students hostile for survival in universities. According to the research of the University of Suffolk, 2020(p.20), the African support movements fought hard, ending up requesting the UK government to look into the issues of black students in the UK Universities. The governments set rules and regulations but could not wholly change the universities, but consideration was improved. Racism could not end since issues that concerned government and universities still the whites were given the priority compared to the black students. Academic funds were disbursed to the students but in small portions compared to white students in universities. Racism could not end and further extended to the national government of the united kingdoms. According to Bell, 2013(p.33), it clarifies that the blacks in the government fought against anti-racism in the UK universities. When the government set rules and regulations relating to the universities, the whites considered the blacks last. Racism has affected the university’s black students and staff members since the government could not set equal laws favoring black and white staff in universities. For the last five years, the government has given black students opportunities to be led by the shreds of evidence from the identified universities. (Advance HE, 2020(p101). Despite the claims that the government gave white students consideration, the blacks in universities could not afford the same lifestyles as that of the white students and university staff members.
Students pursuing studies in various universities are provided with funds to proceed with their academics. Students need support to make their academic success. Without permission, students facing financial constraints could not proceed with their studies according to their expected targets. The government allocates funds for students in universities to support their studies. According to the research of Advance HE, 202(p.134), the black students and staff received unequal funds compared to the funds earmarked for the white. Some blacks were unfunded completely, thus displaying racism and Equality being imparted to them. Racism in universities made blacks strain when pursuing their studies. They could not enjoy any single funds allocated for all university students .According to Valarie 2018, she states that black American students could receive little funds or completely nothing, and therefore they were forced to use their funds to support their entire studies. The white students are the ones who were extensively considered during fund allocations hence benefiting from funds allocated for university students. The funds earmarked for the white students sustained them in their studies, attaining the best. Some blacks facing financial problems end up dropping from school. According to the research of the United Kingdom, the underfunding of blacks was a significant challenge facing the blacks in universities. Unlike the blacks, the whites received total funds, who received nothing to sustain their studies. Racism has dramatically affected the blacks, for they cannot receive matching funds to white students in universities.
Successful students they require to access academic resources to attain success at the end of academics. Students need enough learning resources for them to give out promising results. The university’s mandate is to provide resources for the students to learn favorably while in the academic environment. The blacks did not receive learning requirements ultimately, or when they are provided with, they are insufficient. The white students are the most advantaged in the society since they received everything they needed for the academics, for the black Americans struggled with academics to give up with studies. The environment was never conducive for the studies when it came to blacks. The black students were not allowed to share the same books with the white students at any cost. According to the statistics, women professors were less in number in various universities in the UK. There were only 25 black women and 90 black men professors among 19000 professors across all the higher education institutions in 2018. advance 2020 (p.149) states that the blacks were punished in many parts of the United States. The blacks could not access the services while at the university.
For instance, students’ loans were only disbursed to white students. The rest, who were the blacks, struggled to pay for the fees themselves without receiving government loans. Lack of resources for the black students has dramatically affected the students’ academic performance. According to Fazackerley 2020, some of the students drop out of universities due to harsh treatment. Denial of the ability to access resources has led to academic challenges. Regarding this research, racism led to denying access to resources to black students in American universities. The blacks were denied the same opportunities as the whites, leading to unequal resources to students of the same university.
Students pursuing studies in the same recognized university need to receive equal rights and freedom as students. The unequal right has been a significant threat to black students. They are denied rights as students from the same university. For instance, leadership was granted to the white students. The blacks had to be controlled by the whites. They lacked powers in the institution. For example, resources were not distributed to the students equally. The whites were given priorities hence denying the blacks. The student leadership council could not allow black representatives on the board. The blacks could not access the same treatment. They were harassed terribly.
On the other hand, the blacks were considered to be poor. Doherty, 2020(p.17) clearly shows that students from low-income families were denied several rights due to their family backgrounds. The black students were not allowed to lead the white students; however, they were forced to join schools for the black students. The whites were considered to be royal hence despising the blacks. Regarding this research on students in the United Kingdom universities, the blacks have been denied equal rights to that of the white student, thus leaving as enslaved people in the United Kingdom state. Students, especially the black students in higher education institutes, were denied rights in the institution.
Regarding the research of racism in the United Kingdom universities, there emerged several factors that the students underwent through. Students in higher education institutes aim for better grades at the end of the academic year in the universities. The blacks faced several challenges that affected their higher education compared to white students. The black students experienced discrimination, lack of resources, unequal rights, poor performance, racial Stress, and unfavorable government policies. The experience for the white did not provide a favorable environment for academics. Therefore, racism affected the black students in the higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. Employments were offered to the whites. According to the research of EHRC, 2019(p.81) states that unemployment to the graduates was 6.3 per cent compared to that of blacks which were 12.9 per cent in the UK universities.
EHRC (2019) Tackling racial harassment: universities challenged
Fazackerley A (2020) ‘It’s not banter, its racism: UK students accuse universities of brushing complaints aside,’ The Guardian
University of Suffolk (2020) Increasing safety for those experiencing family and intimate relationship harm within black and minority ethnic communities by responding to those who harm.
Solórzano, D G and Yosso, T J (2002). Critical Race Methodology: Counter-Storytelling as an Analytical Framework for Education Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23–44. doi.org/10.1177/107780040200800103
Lander, V, and Gillborn, D (2020, October 26). Critical Race Theory: Some clarifications. Leeds Beckett University Blogs. www.Leeds Beckett.ac.UK/blogs/Carnegie-education/2020/10/critical-race-theory/
Lingayah, S, Blackmore, E, and Sanderson, B (2020). Common Ground Contested Space – Public and campaigner thinking about racism and what this means for building public support for racial justice. Runnymede. www.runnymedetrust.org/projects-and-publications/parliament/reframing-race.html
Liyanage, M (2020). Miseducation: Decolonising curricula, culture, and pedagogy in UK universities (Debate Paper 23). HIP. www.hepi.ac.uk/2020/07/23/miseducation-decolonising-curricula-culture-and-pedagogy-in-uk- universities
Doharty, N, Madriaga, M and Joseph-Salisbury, R (2020). The university went to ‘decolonize,’ and all they brought back was lousy diversity double-speak! Critical race counter-stories from faculty of colour in ‘decolonial’ times. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 0(0), 1–12. doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2020.1769601
Advance HE (2020). Equality in higher education: Statistical reports 2020. www.advance-he.ac.uk/knowledge-hub/equality-higher-education-statistical-report-2020
Arday, J, Zoe Belluigi, D, and Thomas, D (2021). Attempting to break the chain: Reimaging inclusive pedagogy and decolonizing the curriculum within the academy. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 53(3), 298–313.
Linguistic Justice Black Language, Literacy, Identity, and Pedagogy
By April Baker-Bell Copyright Year 2020
McDuff, N, Hughes, A, Tatam, J, Morrow, E, and Ross, F (2020). Improving Equality of opportunity in higher education through adopting an Inclusive Curriculum Framework. Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning, 22(2), 83–121. doi.org/10.5456/WPLL.22.2.83
Jivraj, S (2020). Towards Anti-racist Legal pedagogy: A resource. research.kent.ac.UK/decolonising-law-schools/wp-content/uploads/sites/866/2020/09/Towards-Anti- racist-Legal-Pedagogy-A-Resource.pdf
Gillborn, D. (2013). Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England. The Educational Forum, 78(1), 26-41.
Hill Collins, P. and Bilge, S., 2020. Intersectionality. 2nd ed. Polity: 2020.
Gillborn, D. (2015) ‘Intersectionality, Critical Race Theory, and the Primacy of Racism: Race, Class, Gender, and Disability in Education,’ Qualitative Inquiry, 21(3), pp. 277–287. do i: 10.1177/1077800414557827.
Black, Asian and minority ethnic student attainment in UK universities: by Valarie Amos 2017/218
Hill Collins, P. and Bilge, S., 2020. Intersectionality. 2nd ed. Polity: 2020.
Wong, B., Elmorally, R., Copsey-Blake, M., Highwood, E., & Singarayer, J. (2020). Is race still relevant? Student perceptions and experiences of racism in higher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 1-17. doi:10.1080/0305764x.2020.1831441
Reay, Diane PY – 2018/09/01 SP – 47 EP – 66 SN – 978-3-319-60260-8 T1 – Race and Elite Universities in the UK: Racism, Whiteness and Decolonising the Academy DO – 10.1007/978-3-319-60261-5_3 JO – Dismantling Race in Higher Education: Racism, Whiteness and Decolonising the Academy ER
Tackling racial harassment: universities challenged: Great Britain. Equality and Human Rights Commission]: Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2019.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.