Posted: February 15th, 2022

Quantitative methods for health research


Table of Contents

Background. 4

Part A.. 4

Choice of Control chart 4

Constructing the XmR Chart 4

Specifying cause of the variation for identification criteria. 5

Methodology. 6

Assumption. 6

Observation. 6

Part B.. 7

Choice of control chart 7

Constructing the XmR Chart 7

Methodology. 8

Assumption. 8

Observation. 8

Part C.. 8

Choice of control chart 8

Creating the XmR Chart 9

Methodology. 9

Assumption. 9

Observation. 9

Conclusion. 9

References. 10




In this report, the data analyst has provided statistical analysis for the list of calls that have been given in the work. The table contains important information on the calls that have been resolved through telephone for the southwestern ambulance service NHS foundation trust. 

Part A

In this part, there is a list that is given a table. These data are from January to September in 2015 year. The table has also concentrated on the telephonic response and the face-to-face response from the ambulance service. They have also shown the percentage of calls closed by telephonic advice. In this statistical analysis, the data are to be determined by the evidence provided in the table. 

Choice of Control chart 

The data analyst needs to choose a control chart to study the changes in the overall process of the task done by the NHS foundation trust. This control chart is a graph that will help show the process changes over some time. In this graphical figure, the data will be plotted over some time (Prado et al., 2019). Control charts are also known as the Shewhart chart. This type of chart will show the central line for the average value, an upper line for the upper control limit, and a lower line for the lower control limit of the process. Many industries use this tool to analyze the various data, and it is also considered one of the quality tools in seven basic.

The X-MR chart is essential here because the data given to analyze are continuous, and it will be measured on an ongoing monthly basis (Stanistreet et al., 2018). Each month is a data point for the individual measurement for implementing the graph. X-MR chart is a personal chart, and it is also a moving range chart. This is a pair of control charts for processing with a subgroup size of one. 

Constructing the XmR Chart

The MXR chart can be described as a chart that helps in understanding if a given process is stable or not. The moving average of the chart provides details about the data points in the chart. The MXR chart helps calculate the average by dividing the given data points by the number of data points on that chart. IN this case, the data point will be the number of months provided.

Further, in this case, we have to calculate the moving range of the values. The term moving content can be explained as the graph which describes the distance between two data points. IN this case, we have to take the average moving range, which can be calculated by the sum of the given moving range divided by the number of the moving fields.

Thus, the chart shows that the average of the moving rage is 11.469%, and the average moving range is 0.92%. The next step that is needed to be done is to calculate the natural process limits of the chart. We first need to calculate the UCL and LCL or the upper control limit and the lower control limit. Further, it is required to be considered that a scaling factor of 2.66 is needed to be taken to calculate the false positive standard deviation or the sigma value.

To calculate the upper control limit, first, we need to consider the average moving value used. First, that is 0.925%. Then we have to add the average of the values plus the scaling factor multiplied by the average moving value. Calculating the same, 11.4692 + (2.66 x 0.9250) the total value stands to be 13.9297%. Further, to calculate the lower control limit, we have to subtract the average values plus the scaling factor multiplied by the average moving value. Calculating the same, 11.4692 – (2.66 x 0.9250) and the total value stands for 9.009%.


Specifying cause of the variation for identification criteria.

There are specific rules that are needed to be applied for the xmr chart to interpret if there are any variations or possible variations. This is required order to be done to ensure that the visual patterns and the seasonal calculi patterns can be understood in a better manner. The variations are necessary to be understood to understand the trends and run off the single exceptional variations. The significant NHS improvements that are needed to be done ensure that the single unexpected occurrence. These trends are necessary to be followed to ensure good results at the time of the event. These trends can be given as

  • It is not resulting in natural variation.
  • Process shifts and alternating causes in seasonal patterns.
  • Indicate the exceptional single causes.
  • Sustained cause with either weak or moderate effects.

There are specific improvements that are needed to be followed in this section. When there are calculations related to the median average and the moving average, there are certain variables that are required to be followed, and hence it helps in the process of ensuring that these values must be taken effectively.



Here in this study, the statistical tools are considered to create a chart that shows the data interpretation. The outcome which will come after analyzing the data through the control chart process will be done through marinating some rules. This tool in statistical techniques has some advantages, which will be further used in support of intervention date annotations, summary statistics, built-in calculators, and it will also include the macros for doing the export to Microsoft PowerPoint. In this study, the methodology of the tool does not have the flexibility in their work as they have some restrictions and rules to be followed (McFadden et al., 2021). The statistical process control tool needs to behave seven consecutive data points that will move upward or downward to identify the trend correctly. In this study, there are six pints that have been used for detecting the earlier direction of the process. It will also use the seven points to identify the shift in the centerline from the overhead line or the bottom line in the chart.


In this part, the measurements are consistent with terms of what is measured and how they are measured. Here the values of the data have been logically comparable in which they are derived from the exact causes. The data have been arranged in chronological order. In the Shewhart chart, the mean of the given data has been used as the average value. It has also excluded the data noise or the data signals of the process (Whitten et al., 2019).


There is no change in the variation process as it has been calculated in this part. There is no violation that happened all over the process of making the control charts, and there is one more point above the +3 sigma or below -3 sigma in the chart. There are eight consecutive points in the graph that are above and below the central line of the graph. There are six such data points that are moving toward the upward and downward of the chart. It has been observed in this part of the work’s result is the calls are mainly closed by the telephonic advice only (Nardi et al., 2018).


Part B

In this part, the list is given in the table with the data from the month of October 2015 to the month of March 2016. Here the data are being collected with other new protocol that has been introduced in part. Here the same task is given to do with the help of control chart process techniques—the percentage of calls that have been done to resolve the telephonic advice. 

Choice of control chart

These charts are used in pairs in the case of the variable data. These charts are used to control the ongoing process by finding the issues and correcting the problems if they have occurred. This control chart is aimed to prevent the pain that can occur and reduce it by making some fundamental changes in the process. There are different types of control charts that exist in the statistical analysis world to enhance the method of controlling problems accurately. This process of statistical control will use its techniques here to identify the variations involved in the data given in the form of a table (Gennings et al., 2020). 

There are some limitations of this chart that should be considered before using it as a statistical tool by the data analyst in the future. There are some prior works that are related to the data analysis is done to use this X-MR chart. There are other charts that are more accurate for the time between events data and also for the success between failures data. So the statistical process of the control chart has shown that the X-MR chart will be more accurate for all types of data provided by the quality improvement system. The data signals in the chart will give a limit for both the upper and lower limits, and they are considered for understanding the context of the data signal and data noise (Haslam et al., 2020).

Constructing the XmR Chart

Given the additional data, there are further examinations there are some more things that are needed to be done. We have to further calculate the value of the upper control limit and the lower control limit in order to calculate the variations among the provided chart. The percentage of the resolved calls, there are specific needs that are needed to be made in order to ensure the new protocol of the intervention. The average of part A was 11.46%, and the average of part b was 11.31%. Therefore, the Dispatch on Disposition or the DoD intervention deteriorated the triage process function by 0.1587%. Further, these new values can be set in the MXR chart. We can charge the importance of the New UCL and LCL and the UCL average. This can help in the process of ensuring better value.



As the task is the same, the methodology of this part will also be the same as part A. the result of comparing the results will have to include the outcome from the process control toll in the process. 


In this part also the consistency of the measurements is there in terms of what is measured and how they are measured. These values are also logically comparable from which they have been derived. The data has been arranged in the order of chronological manner. In the control charts, the mean of the data has been used as the average value in the chart. This part of the calculations has also excluded the data noise and data signal of the process (Brunsdon et al., 2018).


In this part of the study, there are no shifts happening in the chart of the process as well. There is no violation in the area of restrictions like one or more points above +3 or below –3 sigma. There are eight consecutive data points in the control chart above or below the central line of the diagram (Chowell et al., 2019).

Part C

In this part also there is a new protocol that has been introduced from April 2016 to September 2016. The data that has been collected in this part is from this time period only. There has been data combination from the above factors has been done in this part to identify the changes occurring in the calls to resolve the percentage telephonic advice. 

Choice of control chart

This control chart process will help to identify such common causes and particular cause variations in the data. This process will also review the various types of charts available under the control chart process with the appropriate use of cases. These data are being analyzed here so that if there is any problem has arisen, they can be appropriately identified. The X-MR chart is also used in the process (Siniscalco et al., 2020).

The individual chart (X) will show the particular measurement of the data, and the moving range (MR) will display the variability between the data points. This is also working as the control charts only to monitor the effect of the process and prevent the problems that will arise during the improvement theory. Both charts will use to study the variability in the system (Wang et al., 2022). 

Constructing the XmR Chart

With the different values, there are some of the other new deals that can ensure that there are variations, and hence it can be said that the new data set is a combination of part A, part B, Part c. Further, there can be an MXR chart through the additional data, and hence there can be further variations that can help in the process of ensuring that the perfect assumptions are made.



For making the comparison of the result that is included in the outcome of the statistical process control technique. Here the use of the statistical tool is done correctly to prevent the problems that will occur to analyze the change in the overall process. Here the methodology of this part is also the same as done in the above features (Brook et al., 2018).


The measurements of the values are consistent with the terms of what is needed to be measured and how they need to be measured. Here result values are comparable with logically from where they have been derived. Here the mean has been used as an average in the control chart (Morgan et al., 2019).


 There is no shift in the control chart that has happened during the analysis process. The overall observation has shown that there is some possible variation needed in the analysis (Vélez et al., 2018).


Herewith the study, it can be concluded that the data are not being sufficient to plot in the X-MR chart so that the identification may happen for any particular cause variation for the data used in part A & B. Thus, concluding the topic, it can be said that there are various options that can be used for the process of the Xmr charts. IT can be said that there are some insufficient primary data that are present in the given data sets, which reduce the chances of getting the absolute average of the values. IT can be said that the importance of chart c can be used for the demonstration on deterioration, and this process ensures that the lower average of the calls is successfully triggered. Further, it can be said that the rings in chart c can be understood for the service improvement.






















Ascari, L., Novara, C., Dusio, V., Oddi, L. and Siniscalco, C., 2020. Quantitative methods in microscopy to assess pollen viability in different plant taxa. Plant reproduction33(3), pp.205-219.

Bruce, N., Pope, D. and Stanistreet, D., 2018. Quantitative methods for health research: a practical, interactive guide to epidemiology and statistics. John Wiley & Sons.

Brunsdon, C., 2018. Quantitative methods III: Scales of measurement in quantitative human geography. Progress in Human Geography42(4), pp.610-621.

Chain, C.P., Santos, A.C.D., Castro, L.G.D. and Prado, J.W.D., 2019. Bibliometric analysis of the quantitative methods applied to the measurement of industrial clusters. Journal of Economic Surveys33(1), pp.60-84.

Garcia, N.M., López, N. and Vélez, V.N., 2018. Quantcast: Rectifying quantitative methods through critical race theory. Race Ethnicity and Education21(2), pp.149-157.

Haslam, P.A., 2020. More extensive data and quantitative methods in the study of socio-environmental conflicts. Sustainability12(18), p.7673.

Mazzella, M., Sumner, S.J., Gao, S., Su, L., Diao, N., Mostofa, G., Qamruzzaman, Q., Pathmasiri, W., Christiani, D.C., Fennell, T. and Gennings, C., 2020. Quantitative methods for metabolomic analyses evaluated in the Children’s Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR). Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology30(1), pp.16-27.

McFadden, D., 2021. Quantitative methods for analyzing travel behavior of individuals: some recent developments (pp. 279-318). Routledge.

Meng, Q., Hu, D., Zhang, Y., Chen, X., Zhang, L. and Wang, Z., 2022. Do industrial parks generate intra-heat island effects in cities? New evidence, quantitative methods, and contributing factors from a spatiotemporal analysis of top steel plants in China. Environmental Pollution292, p.118383.

Morgan, O., 2019. How decision-makers can use quantitative approaches to guide outbreak responses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B374(1776), p.20180365.

Nardi, P.M., 2018. Doing survey research: A guide to quantitative methods. Routledge.

Whitten, E.T., 2019. Application of quantitative methods in the geochemical study of granite massifs. In Studies in analytical geochemistry (pp. 76-123). University of Toronto Press.

Wojciechowska, M., Sobczak, K., Kozlowski, P., Sedehizadeh, S., Wojtkowiak-Szlachcic, A., Czubak, K., Markus, R., Lusakowska, A., Kaminska, A. and Brook, J.D., 2018. Quantitative methods to monitor RNA biomarkers in myotonic dystrophy. Scientific reports8(1), pp.1-13.

Yan, P. and Chowell, G., 2019. Quantitative methods for investigating infectious disease outbreaks (Vol. 70). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
error: Content is protected !!
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.