Posted: February 17th, 2022

Leadership and Change Concepts

Leadership and Change


Case Study 1. 3

Summery. 4

Introduction. 5

Change Model 6

The Change Model is meant to serve as a guideline rather than a prescription. This change method intends to provide characteristics and focus to current change strategies in the Mid Staffordshire hospitals. The goal of the model is for the organization to embrace the foundation of the strategy and customize it to match their environment, aspirations, patients, and community (Fitzgerald and Biddle, 2019). 6

Change model Components. 6

Task 2. 9

Employees’ Resistance to Change. 9

Conclusion. 12

Case Study 2. 13


TASK 1: 16

Evaluation and Recommendation of Model of Change: 16

TASK 2: 18




References. 22




Case Study 1 


The Change Model takes the eight aspects and the concepts that drive them through a step-by-step process so that the CEOs of the Mid Staffordshire Hospitals can apply them to their organizations for their betterment. The lessons learned from the Mid Staffordshire Hospital crisis are a fantastic place to start learning how to deal with change successfully. The Change Model may be used for any type of transformation project, big or little, inside or outside of a firm, and for any change. The Health and Care Change Model aims to enhance the frequency and breadth with which companies communicate and utilise lessons learned through internal and external change projects. This paper also discussed about the resistance of the employees to this change and also offered a few approaches applying which the CEOs can mitigate this issue.




The Change Model is a linked, integrative structure that collaborates with the progressive Change model to facilitate long-term development. The concept may be used for every adjustment important to the Mid Staffordshire hospital, regardless of how large or little. It was created with thousands of healthcare and service professionals and is founded on solid research and knowledge. Observations from the Mid Staffordshire Hospital crisis give a good starting point for learning how to handle change effectively for improving quality. In 2005, the Stafford and Cannock Chase hospitals decided to apply for a Foundation Trust approved in 2008. Nevertheless, very elevated fatality rates drew criticism from various sectors, prompting the formation of a task force to investigate the situation. This suggests that the controversy was caused by disastrous administrative issues brought on by bad change management. 

Task 1

The Change Model provides a step-by-step approach to the eight elements and the ideas that drive them. These give a structured, methodical technique to assist in creating an atmosphere conducive to change accomplishment. The Change Model may be applied to any transformation endeavor, large or small, inside any company and for any change.

Change Model 


Fig: 1

The Change Model is meant to serve as a guideline rather than a prescription. This change method intends to provide characteristics and focus to current change strategies in the Mid Staffordshire hospitals. The goal of the model is for the organization to embrace the foundation of the strategy and customize it to match their environment, aspirations, patients, and community (Fitzgerald and Biddle, 2019).

Change model Components

Shared purpose- the starting point

The purpose is the reason for the change, not the “what” or “how,” It must serve as a guideline and impetus for the Mid Staffordshire Hospitals’ actions. It satisfies individuals’ desire for purposeful employment and their desire to be a portion of anything greater than oneself by encapsulating their intellectual, moral, and physical devotion to a purpose. When people find parallels among the principles, opinions, and goals and strive toward a single objective, the purpose becomes linked. Since development initiatives operate best when there is a clear relationship between the transformation and people’s beliefs, shared purpose is at the heart of the Change Model. When engaging on significant shifts, numerous individuals at diverse degrees and representing many areas must collaborate. A similar concept and desire might bring together diverse categories of stakeholders.


Fig: 2 (Three steps for the building of a shared purpose)

Spread and Adoption

The Health and Care Change Model strives to increase the frequency and scope with which organizations proactively communicate and apply lessons from their own and external change initiatives. Variables that aid or impede the spread and adoption of health and care changes are well understood. They must use the available information to guide their goals by recognizing and improving problematic elements.

Improvement Tools 

There are various tested and reliable tools and approaches accessible to assist various types of change, ranging from sizeable systemic change to small-scale process development. An evidence-based development approach guarantees that change is implemented systematically, following tried-and-true ways to ensure success, and underlies the other Change Model elements (Fitzgerald and Biddle, 2019). 

Project and Performance Management 

It is not elective to use a project and performance management method that involves dedication and attention. It allows for the better operational management of the change to offer tactical advantages. Key indications will quantitatively evaluate project effectiveness if they are appropriately maintained. The use of techniques, methodologies, abilities, and expertise to assist in accomplishing the program’s goals will be guided by effective management.


Businesses in health and care typically evaluate for three motives: to rate people’s work effectiveness, influence study findings, or both. It’s critical to establish a precisely stated shared objective to discover and gather the most relevant foundation information for any change program. Using suitable measuring tools guarantees that victory may be recognized while also mitigating risk. Required steps to measurement are: Decide aim, Choose Measures, Define Measures, Collect Data, Review measures, Analyze and present, Repeat no. 4 and no. 6 steps.


Fig: 3

System Drivers 

The key to long transformation is determining if the broad circumstances for change may be aligned to support our goals. Rewards for change specified requirements to be met, or other factors such as culture or environment are all possible systemic drivers. To consistently enhance the quality of treatment for patients, all incentives must be oriented in the same way. 

Motivate and Mobilize 

Employee and customer involvement and urging consumers to undertake actions are all part of motivating and mobilizing. Controlling own and others’ enthusiasm for transformation is a key leadership skill amid situations of unexpected upheaval. Fatigue and cynicism among employees represent a severe threat to our transformation attempts and the patients and service consumers if this is not addressed.

Leadership by all

Leadership refers to the plan, talents, and activities necessary to lead the great transition. It is based on the concept of distributed (or scattered) management, which asserts that managerial activities can come from executives at any stage of an organization and in any vocation (Fitzgerald and Biddle, 2019). According to the data, the leadership style that inspires a dedication to a common goal is the most likely to accomplish radical change.

Task 2

Employees’ Resistance to Change 

Employees’ opinions regarding advocated changes are frequently conflicted: certain parts are viewed as favorable, while others are viewed as harmful. It’s crucial to understand the strategies to apply when determining the amount of resistance to change among workers to implement solutions. We can differentiate between mindsets dominated by intellectual or affective, conative or desiderative components. The ambiguity of the resultant mentality is reflected in this combination. 

Having a one-sided perspective of resistance to change is inconvenient. Those who protect the functioning system, protracted expertise, or shaped inter-personal connections are decent. But those who encourage inadequately tried methodologies with no profound assessments and do not consider others are poor. In reality, as Ford and Ford point out, it is a reciprocal engagement in which both categories react to each other (Shahbaz et al., 2019). They might also emphasize that it is not just the concept of transformation but also how it is realized. 

Following are six approaches that the CEO of the Mid Staffordshire Hospitals can execute to mitigate the employees’ resistance to change: 

Education and communication 

Employees can understand the rationale in the change endeavor if discussion and education are done first. As a result, there are fewer unsubstantiated and erroneous rumors about the organization’s changes. Individuals frequently assist in the execution of changes after they have been convinced. One of the most effective ways to counteract opposition to change is to inform and educate people regarding the changes ahead of schedule (Brooke-Sumner et al., 2019).

Participation and Involvement 

Researchers respond to the individuals affected and apply their suggestions in a participatory change process. When people don’t have all of the knowledge they have to create the modification, it’s a smart idea to get the help of others. Participation usually leads to the dedication required for the change to succeed.

Facilitation and support

Throughout a changeover time, managers can assist workers in helping them cope with their fears and anxieties. Facilitation and support can assist leaders in avoiding possible opposition to organizational change. In this case, resistance to change is most likely due to the idea that the transformation would have unfavorable implications (Shahbaz et al., 2019).

Negotiation and Agreement

CEOs may be able to overcome objections by rewarding those who welcome change. It can be accomplished by enabling those opposed to change to reject particular aspects of the change that they believe are dangerous. If anybody stands to suffer due to the change or can oppose, you should employ Negotiation and Agreement.

Manipulation and Co-optation 

People who are resistant to change can be co-opted by including them in a transformation strategy committee for aesthetics instead of their ability to contribute substantively. If individuals believe they have been duped, this might lead to more problems (Brooke-Sumner et al., 2019). Co-optation also means selecting leadership from people who resist change to represent the progressive movement.

Explicitly and Implicit Coercion

Finally, compulsion can be utilized as a last option. Only utilize this if you need to get somewhere quickly. Leaders can employ this method to encourage employees to accept changes, either explicitly or indirectly, by underscoring that resistance to change may lead to negative consequences:

  • Loss of jobs
  • Rejections
  • Relocation of employees
  • eradication of promotions 


Several change advocates view opposition as things to be avoided or, if it becomes too powerful, eradicated. Bolognese tells us that workers who are dissatisfied with improvements and have a lot of inquiries are considered disobedient. According to Piderit, a contemptuous approach regarding change might be driven by a conflict between the advocated change and a company’s moral convictions or a desire to safeguard what an employee perceives to be best for their company.


Case Study 2





As it is a well-known fact that with the rise of the current pandemic situation there has been a need to change the company’s working. For the CEO of Palm Riviera Resort, it is essential to change its organizational structure and the way of working to be in competition and survive in the market. There is a need to change the entire plan and the working procedure. Here, an evaluation and recommendation of the Model of change are highlighted, which can be adopted by the company’s management. 








In this report, analysis on The Palm Riviera Resort is done, which is a subsidiary of a global resort group based in Europe. It is a hospitality group focused on customer care, offering a smooth customer experience to a diverse range of patrons. The resort has been in existence for 12 years. Currently, the company is facing a downfall, and there is a need for change in the organization process, as the customers want a wider range of services at a competitive cost. The company is now planning and turnaround to work move efficiently and increase the staff’s efficiency. The company is facing a lot of challenges in adopting the change. The report will evaluate a model of change that might be utilized by the company and also measure to mitigate employee resistance. 


TASK 1: 


Evaluation and Recommendation of Model of Change:

There are many models of change that can be used, namely Kotter’s Model, Mc Kinsey’s Model, ADKAR Model, Kubler-Ross Model, and Lewin’s Model. Each Model is important for the organization. A critical analysis will be presented on each Model: 


  • Kotter’s Model of Change: This Model works on eight simple steps entirely focused on the employee’s response to change. These steps involve communication, focusing on short-term goals, completing the task, building teamwork, and givingg vision to the company. This Model is the easiest to follow and incorporate in the organization, and this Model is mainly used to teach proper communication in the workplace. 
  • McKinsey 7s Model of Change: This Model is based on the 7s they are strategy, structure, system, shared values, style, staff, and skills. This Model ensures a consistent workflow in the company. 
  • ADKAR model of change stands for awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement. This Model is great when the business or a company looks at both business and people dimensions of change. 
  • Kubler-Ross Model of Change: This Model is completely employee-oriented. This is based on how the employee should be dealt with to implement the organizational change. This Model walks through five basic stages Denial, Anger, Bargain, Depression, and Acceptance.
  • Lewin’s Model of Change: These Model works on three processes that are Unfreeze, Change, and Refreeze. This is the best model to be implemented in the current world of competition. 


According to the Evaluation of all the Models, it is recommended that Palm Riviera Resort should implement Lewin’s Model of Change. According to the current conditions and the challenges that have been faced by the company, including the reduction in the workforce, implementing standard employee benefits program, disagreement between the level of management regarding the change, and also focusing on the awareness and communication skills. By applying Lewin’s Model of Change, the company will be able to determine what needs to be changed and will plan accordingly to implement the changes(Bamberg and Schulte,  2018.). This Model is best to increase the communication and the information flow and also to promote and empower action. By using this Model, the company can bring changes in the culture and will also help in promoting change on a long-term basis, which will, in turn, motivate the employee to work effectively and efficiently. 

TASK 2: 




The major resistance from the employees, according to the recommendation made in the case study, could be the reduction in the workforce and the resistance to change according to the growing demands and needs of the customers. The reduction in overtime payment is the other reason for employee resistance. The resistance is basically of three types Logical and Rational Resistance, Psychological Resistance, and Sociological Resistance. The Model of change that should be applied by the company is the Lewin Model of Change(Hussain, et al.,  2018). 


This model comprises of three stages: 


  • UNFREEZE: In this stage, Lewin identifies away human behavior plays a role in change as being characterized by a quasi-stationary state. This is a state of mind, with mental and physical capabilities that are almost attainable, but they are in such a way that the mind is unable to evolve without attaining this. By using this stage, Plam Reivier Resort can determine the change that needs to be implemented by conducting a survey of the company and understanding what changes are necessary to be implemented. This can be achieved by talking to the stakeholders and portraying the issue in such a way that it causes a positive impact on the employees, using a long-term vision. 
  • CHANGE: Once the company has implemented the stage of Unfreeze, the management might begin the stage of change. This stage is quite unpredictable, so even executing the well-planned change might not result in a guaranteed outcome. So to tackle this situation, the company might have various methods to try the trial-and-error process. The result should be carefully analyzed, and the best method of change should be implemented. In this entire stage, there are two main drivers, namely leadership and flow of information. The flow of information should be in a hierarchical order, and the leaders should be well aware of the entire planning. While implementing this stage, the communication should be clear and precise. All the misunderstandings should be clarified. If this stage is implemented successfully, the company will be able to achieve its target.
  • REFREEZE:  The purpose of this last stage is to sustain the changes that have been implemented in the company. This new state must become part of the status quo for the employees, so the employee no longer resist forces that are attempting to implement the change. This stage ties a totally new change in the culture of the company. The proper methods should be applied to promote ways to sustain the change for the long-term, by ensuring a proper feedback procedure for the employees and giving them rewards according to their work to keep them motivated as the company is planning to reduce the employee count so a proper training should be given to the employee so that they can deploy the resources in the most effective way(Burnes, 2020.).





  • Communication and Education: A good way to reduce the resistance to change is to keep employees informed about the change in advance. Early communication and knowledge allow the employee to see the logic that is behind the proposed change. This reduces the chances of employees turnover.


  • Participation Indecision Making: This approach is likely to reduce resistance more so than simply hoping people will accept change without being involved. Employee involvement may result in greater buy-in change as opposed to resistance to it.


  • Agreement and Negotiation: A process of negotiation can be used by offering an incentive to those employees who are resisting change in order to combat the resistance, or an agreement can be entered by allowing those employees to move to the different department which will automatically threaten the employee and they will adopt the change. 


  • Facilitating Support: The management or the company should provide the necessary support to the employees to adapt to the change. If the management does not provide the employee with the necessary support, this will lead to resistance to change. So the company should provide all the support needed to mitigate the resistance(De Clercq, 2019).




After looking at the case study, it can be concluded that the company should adopt Lewin’s change model to implement the change in the company. Due to the increase in competition and demand of the customer, there is a need for the company to adapt to the changes. Suppose the company is considering to lay off the staff so a necessary training should also be given to the employee so that they can use the resources accordingly and work for the growth of the company. It is also important that the company should handle the entire managerial hierarchy in a proper way so that the changes can be implemented easily. All these changes should be made keeping in mind the customer and the competitors. The Model of Lewin is best for the company if the company wants to implement the change in the organization. 




Bamberg, S. and Schulte, M., 2018. Processes of change. Environmental psychology: An introduction, pp.307-318.

Brooke-Sumner, C., Petersen-Williams, P., Kruger, J., Mahomed, H. and Myers, B., 2019. ‘Doing more with less’: a qualitative investigation of perceptions of South African health service managers on implementation of health innovations. Health policy and planning34(2), pp.132-140.

Burnes, B., 2020. The origins of Lewin’s three-step model of change. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 56(1), pp.32-59.

De Clercq, D., 2019. Getting creative with resources: How resilience, task interdependence, and emotion sharing mitigate the damage of employee role ambiguity. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 55(3), pp.369-391.

Fitzgerald, K. and Biddle, L., 2019. Creating the conditions for change: an NHS perspective. Journal of health organization and management.

Grol, R. and Wensing, M., 2020. Implementation of change in healthcare: A complex problem. Improving patient care: The implementation of change in health care, pp.1-20.

Hussain, S.T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M.J., Hussain, S.H. and Ali, M., 2018. Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 3(3), pp.123-127.

Shahbaz, M., Gao, C., Zhai, L., Shahzad, F. and Hu, Y., 2019. Investigating the adoption of big data analytics in healthcare: the moderating role of resistance to change. Journal of Big Data6(1), pp.1-20.

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