Posted: February 16th, 2022


2. Research Methods for Business

2.1 Can you tell me what business research is & why it is required?

Answer:  Business research may be described as research activities conducted concerning several functions in the business and corporate sector. In a home-based business, the parts can be expressed as personal or household management; office administration; product creation and distribution; financial activities (for example, managing bank accounts); and sales and marketing.

Business research is the process of gathering thorough information about all aspects of business and applying that knowledge to increase the company’s sales and profits. Research like this one assists businesses in determining which products or services are the most lucrative or in high demand. Firm research is defined as the acquisition of information and expertise for professional or commercial reasons, such as assessing prospects and goals for a business. Gathering sales statistics and generating a full report on marketing and sales is one example of business research. 

Business research is a systematic investigation that gives data to help managers make better decisions. The basic idea is that managers operate in an environment of inherent uncertainty and often rely on sound judgment to make judgments. In other words, it is a method of gathering, evaluating, and communicating essential data, information, and insights to decision-makers so that the company is mobilized to take appropriate actions that maximize performance. I call these insights “business research”, and I use that term as a descriptor for a wide range of methods, functions, and processes. There are various things you may want to investigate when running a business. All of these depend on the nature of your business and the services you provide. From market shares to sales, you do extensive research. You have numerous methods to determine which product or technique will be the most effective. Business research enables you to make informed judgments and choose the essential areas to spend your money on.

For example, a vehicle manufacturer intends to launch the most recent model on the market. Using that model as a ‘starting’ point will allow the company to adopt new strategies using the sales success of that new model as evidence of how its long-standing vehicles may perform. To do so, they must devise tactics for exploring and monitoring client demand. As a result, the organization will research to gather data and assess market trends. This will help them decide when and how to adapt their product ranges and marketing campaigns. This will allow them to draw more decisive conclusions and produce a high-quality vehicle at a reasonable price, resulting in a higher market share. Marketing research may address product image, advertising, sales promotion, distribution, packaging, price, after-sales service, customer preferences, new product creation, and other areas of marketing.

2.2 Explain the ethics of Business Research.

Answer: In business research, ethics refers to a code of conduct or the anticipated social norm of behaviour when doing research. Research presented in the context of research: Ethical rules of conduct must be followed to maintain project integrity while also adhering to the specific ethical standards of “research.” Ethical behaviour is required of the organization and its members who finance the study, the researchers who do the research, and the respondents who supply the essential data. An ethical decision is made to include individuals in a research project, whether they are willing participants or not. Research ethics is a broad and complex topic, which historically has been the responsibility of a single individual or group. The individual initiating the research should do so in good faith, pay attention to what the data reveals, and, sacrificing the ego, seek organizational rather than self-interests. Research ethics requires that individuals be aware of the project’s true nature and that all those involved should understand their roles and responsibilities. Ethical behaviour should also be represented by the researchers who perform the inquiry, the participants who give the data, the analysts who offer the results, and the entire research team that interprets the results and suggests alternate arrangements. Ethical conduct is the norm when these principles are followed, and dishonesty is the exception. This norm applies to all institutions, whether places of work or other groups, as suggested above.

As in other facets of business, all parties involved in research should act ethically. Otherwise, research becomes “nothing more than a key to a lock that can never be opened.” The essence of ethical research is following accepted guidelines for protecting the welfare and data of all parties involved and minimizing the risk of harm that could arise. Ethics are rules or standards of conduct that assist us in making moral decisions about our actions and interactions with others. The purpose of research ethics is to guarantee that no one is hurt or experiences negative repercussions from research operations. This goal is frequently attained. However, unethical behaviour is widespread, and it includes breaching nondisclosure agreements, violating participant confidentiality, misrepresenting results, manipulating individuals, utilizing invoicing anomalies, evading legal accountability, and more. Misconduct can occur when an individual researcher is placed in a situation where rules do not apply. Surveys frequently demonstrate that economic organizations see ethics as a concern. Indeed, more than 66% of respondents to the Global Business Ethics Survey conducted by the World Economic Forum identified “seeking a competitive advantage” as a critical ethical consideration for their organizations. Despite increased knowledge of formal ethics programmes and the availability of codified ethical rules of conduct, there is a rise in reports of ethical misbehaviour. The behaviour is not restricted to a few unethical people but is more systemic. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to ethics. They advocated for rigorous adherence to a set of regulations due to the unexpected constraints imposed on researchers. Further, because many scientists are also people of culture, there is a tendency to simplify ethical issues according to the specific cultures in which they develop. Relying on each individual’s particular sense of morality, on the other hand, is problematic.

4. Identity ambiguity and changes.

4.1 What triggers the identity ambiguity in the corporate structure? Explain each theme in short.

Answer: Our participants’ experiences were characterized by three distinct themes linked to the roots of identity ambiguity: (1) shifts in social referents; (2) temporal identity discrepancies; and (3) interpreted external image differences. All of the themes have both a personal and a social referent, which strongly suggests that identity problems experienced by participants are partially caused and intensified by other individuals with whom they interact.

Social referent change

The first source of identity uncertainty was a natural byproduct of the spin-off, the loss of Bosco as a social referent. This loss multiplied with the completion of a second movement conducted rapidly through all of the original IBSC founding members. In terms of organizational identity, social referents are other businesses that members of the organization use as a comparison to assist them in establishing who they are as a firm. There are multiple forms of identity, but the three most relevant to our work (Bazerman and Neale, 1990; Weber and Lebra, 1993) are culture, as ‘the patterns of how things are done around here. Since the creation of the Bozkineticunit within Bozco seven years earlier, Bozkinetic members had had a convenient (and mostly positive) comparison point that lent identity clarity. The loss of that comparison point created cognitive dissonance among the members in a dispersed electronic world and caused dissociation regarding identity. Even though the comparison was not always a good one, it was straightforward for Bozkinetic members to extract meaning about who they were as long as they could point to Bozco and say, “we are like them,” or “we are not like them.”

Temporal identity discrepancies

Temporal identity discrepancies are occasions in which members identify a discrepancy between their organization’s existing identity and assertions about what it will be or what members would like it to be in the future. Members of Bozkinetic had temporal identity inconsistencies as they attempted to reconcile who they understood the organization to be now with expectations (spoken and inferred) for the spin-off and views of who the company would be following the product. There was some trepidation, as one executive VP stated, “We’re excited about being our own separate company.” But I believe, and I hear this a lot, that we think we need to be more agile, aggressive, and structured to be who we want to be. 

Construed external image discrepancies

Inconsistencies between how members regarded their organization (i.e., their organizational identity) and their judgments of how outsiders saw their organization exacerbated the identity ambiguity (i.e., their construed external image). It is further plausible that this relationship was exacerbated in organizations where the leadership gave members a more prominent and transparent basis for their perceptions of their character and identity. Many Bozkinetic workers thought the spin-off was a good thing for the firm, that it was on the right track, and that it was in an excellent position to be a leader in the technological economy. They believed that giving the spin-off to Bozkinetics would strengthen their organization, make them more efficient and dynamic, and maintain their leadership in this business. Unfortunately, this did not always match what they heard from the business media, the stock market, or their consumers. Employees frequently expressed their belief that the media misrepresented the organization and even cited incorrect facts in numerous stories and columns during interviews. Employees often believed that bad news about their organization affected the stock market, including, for example, layoffs and rumours of shutdowns.

4.2 Please briefly discuss the desired image of the corporate identities futures aspects.

Answer: As senior management sought a more significant future image to motivate employees, they highlighted the world’s failing economy and increasing insecurity as justification for encouraging people to focus on Bozkinetic as a source of purpose and stability in their lives. During a recession, Bozkinetic was often a safe investment and had a strong advertising campaign to award the company this image. They hoped that by convincing employees that the firm was “doing the right thing regardless of cost,” they could give a genuine feeling of togetherness to replace the uncertainty left by the spin-off. One goal, for example, involved sponsoring a sitting of sunflowers at the end of the corridor that would positively represent the company’s solidarity.

Being financially secure was not enough, nor was being the most competitive. Neither was particularly creative. Being an autonomous, fast-moving corporation wasn’t either of them. The company had to be big and strong enough to compete; it had to go all out in terms of functions and features. It’s not going to work. What matters is that you are the most caring firm that provides for your clients. Everyone has a visceral understanding of what that is. The [people in this room] want to win. They wanted to be the most inventive victors, but I misunderstood them. I mistook it as what motivates them the most, burying compassion, principles, and caring beneath it.

Finally, the CEO expressed the desired future image in plain, comparative terms by saying that he would like the organization to stand out from [Bozco]. He elaborated by briefly describing his personal experience as an applied engineer and his time at another company working on pilot production management systems. They, of course, intend to start with brick and mortar stores, but in the long run, they want to be one hundred per cent online. They would wish the corporate structure to be 180 degrees from the [Bozco] of today, but he would want people to have the values, character, and treatment of technology that [Bozco] of 1958 had. He described himself as a “lapsed engineer” and someone with no manufacturing background. Following that, top management team members began to emphasize the “values,” “caring,” and “technology-for-people” themes that honed Bozkinetic’s desired future image through modified and increased branding efforts as well as modelling behaviours that better represented the desired new identity. Bozkinetics hovered this idea and painting around the executive team as a group, agreeing on the selected new image, values, branding mode for imagery for improved corporate identity programs.

6. Qualitative Research

6.1 Briefly explain your idea of Qualitative Research on Aesthetics.

Answer: Margaret Eaton traced aesthetic concept research back to the 18th-century philosophers Edmund Burke and David Hume. They attempted to explain aesthetic concepts like beauty empirically by connecting them with physical and psychological responses that characterize individuals’ experiences with various objects and events. Hume, who was a positivist in philosophy but coined the term of that inclination, claimed that beauty is not an innate characteristic but is critical to our human considerations of objects and events. These thinkers were looking for an objective basis for their emotional feelings. Immanuel Kant claimed that aesthetic notions are anchored in human experiences of pleasure and pain and are therefore subjective. Still, he suggested that they have a form of objectivity because feelings of pleasure and pain are universal reactions at the merely aesthetic level. 

On the other hand, Friedrich Schiller also tried to derive aesthetic concepts of beauty from an impression and application in society. Throughout the twentieth century, philosophers resorted to a Human explanation of aesthetic notions through the human sense of taste. They expanded this psychological description to establish aesthetic concepts’ epistemological or logical uniqueness. As a consequence of both philosophical works and considerable empirical work in psychology and biology, we are now wiser and more sophisticated about the cognitive dimensions of aesthetics, which may be applied to the aesthetic qualities of scientific inquiry. The late 1950s cognitive revolution concerned the sort of cognition engaged in the arts and is now remerging within the social sciences and the humanities, examining the contributions of aesthetics to research.

 Following John Dewey’s work in the early twentieth century and researchers such as Suzanne Langer, Nelson Goodman, and Harry Broudy, who contributed to the cognitive revolution of the late 1950s and 1960s, aesthetics pointed to the interdependence of perception, thinking, and feeling. The linkages of perception, thinking, and emotion inherent in creation call attention to the function and location of cognitive, aesthetic elements discovered via inquiry, such as assimilation, internalization, and integration. Traditional academic and institutional systems that compartmentalize knowledge, dividing material into different components, knowledge from interests, and theory from practice, are challenged by aesthetic elements. Instead, the aesthetic provides a conceptual approach to all types of inquiry, aiming for links within and across disciplines, requiring ongoing involvement in study and discussion, and respecting all forms of inquiry as complex, creative, and developing in character. 

The work of Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi and Rick Robinson on museum visitors’ perceptions is an example of the aesthetic qualities generated by qualitative methodologies. Reflections From the Heart of Educational Inquiry, edited by George Willis and William Schubert in 1991, includes pieces by famous scholars ranging from Ted Aoki to Harry Broudy on the value of the aesthetic as a way of teaching and teaching live. Recent examples that intentionally cross academic boundaries are Mieke Bal’s Traveling Concepts in the Humanities: A Rough Guide (in 2002) and Edith Wyschogrod’s Crossover Queries: Dwelling With Negatives, Embodying Philosophy’s Others (in 2006). Dissertations that examine aesthetic sensibilities include, for example, Boo Euyn Lim’s study of aesthetic education for young children in various early childhood settings and Yu-Ting Chen’s study of Taiwanese and Aboriginal aesthetics in elementary schools in Taiwan. Two dissertations investigating aesthetic sensibility are Boo Euyn Lim’s research on aesthetic education for young children in diverse early childhood settings, for example, and Yu-Ting Chen’s study of Taiwanese and Aboriginal aesthetics in Taiwanese elementary schools.

6.2 What is the relationship between Qualitative Content Analysis and other methods?

Answer: I want to explain two types of relationships in brief.

Qualitative and Quantitative Content Analysis

There is no clear distinction between qualitative and quantitative content analysis, and the two approaches are pretty similar. However, one of the differences is that quantitative research tends to focus more on measurement and results, whereas qualitative content analysis focuses more on understanding (Hallin & Mancini, 1996). The method’s two variants focus on the systematic description of data through coding. Quantitative research is focused on measuring the variables and collecting them in a database. They do it by following a prescribed set of steps. In both situations, this entails using a coding frame, creating category definitions, segmenting the material into coding units, and distinguishing between a pilot and a significant analysis phase. The qualitative content analysis quality criteria, particularly consistency and validity, are derived from the quantitative form of the procedure, although they are frequently applied less severely. The presentation of qualitative content analysis findings might include frequency counts, like quantitative content analysis findings. The results will typically include the location of particular topics, frequencies of occurrence of specific categories, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability (in the case of interviews), or absolute frequencies such as “language in twenty per cent.”

Despite these similarities, qualitative content analysis has distinct characteristics that distinguish it as an approach in its own right. While quantitative content analysis focuses on evident meaning, qualitative content analysis is also used to uncover hidden and context-dependent meaning. Consistency is a quality requirement that is addressed less severely in the qualitative form of the approach since hidden meaning is more difficult to define consensually. Because quantitative content analysis is frequently used to test hypotheses, full coding frames may be developed in a concept-driven manner. The coding structure is constantly tested on material distinct from the material used in the primary research. A qualitative analysis of an RCT tends to focus much more on the study of the raw text material and is therefore often used in conjunction with primary research.

Qualitative Content Analysis and Other Qualitative Research Methods

Other qualitative research methods share many characteristics of qualitative content analysis, such as the concern with symbolic material’s meaning and interpretation, the importance of context in determining to mean, and the data-driven and partly iterative procedure. In their extensive review of approaches to qualitative content analysis, Kristjánsson and Atladóttir point out considerable overlap between them (Kristjánsson & Atladóttir, 2000; see also my book on case studies). However, the approach combines components from the quantitative research tradition, distinguishing it from other qualitative methods. Quantitative researchers often work with raw datasets of data and underlying variables combined to make a statistical model, the interpretation of which is usually based on that model. Another common characteristic of qualitative content analysis and the focus on understanding is that the researcher looks at data regarding their social practice concerning their particular purpose, thereby informing general findings and contributing to a more constructive dialogue about problems and approaches. The most critical differences between content analysis and the other qualitative methods will lie in their purposes and appropriate techniques.

Qualitative content analysis necessitates segmentation, pilot coding, and subsequent evaluation of the coding frame for reliability and validity. Thus, although qualitative content analysis can be achieved in principle from a single coding frame, it is rarely used alone in practice. Therefore, the approach is more appropriately considered a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.


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