Posted: February 17th, 2022

Critical Reflection on Leadership and Management

leadership and management theories and principles, and their impact on the effectiveness and culture of Small Businesses 












Several characteristics and techniques are required for accomplishment. One must serve from the forefront as the proprietor of a smaller firm. That’s where the idea of small-business leadership and management shines. And besides, how can a ship escape hit the rocks if the skipper is inept? Leadership and management aren’t only for organizations with workers; regardless of whether one is doing everything oneself, one must be a leader from the start. Any company needs direction from the beginning, which is a sort of leadership and management in and of itself. So, let me be evident: this leadership does not apply only to enterprises with workers; it pertains to all organizations. In this respect, leadership and management are defined as the capacity to guide both people and the firm as a whole amid transformation, challenges, or any other difficulty. I realize it is a broad statement, but it genuinely emphasizes how difficult successful leadership can be. So, how would I put this entire leadership concept into words? However, it includes a variety of topics, which I shall discuss during the paper.

Leadership and Management 

Leadership is an approach or behavior that enables team members to appreciate achieving an objective, mainly how to set up a framework. “Encouragement,” meaning the ability to motivate people to do duties, is a term commonly associated with management. To achieve particular organization objectives, management also comprises the traits of creativity, power, and agreement. The administration level required to define a plan and goal for the organization is determined by the persons in interpersonal interactions who are accessible. As per Hollander et al., management is defined as an interpersonal link comprising diverse people who depend on accomplishing project goals in a group environment. Strong figurehead, as per Openstax, concentrates on the company’s requirements. This involves the need for representatives to conform and work along and the duty of assisting consumers and organizations in attaining their objectives, which, likewise, consists of the need for the group to progress ahead in accomplishing the goal. Managers are the individuals who take on the responsibility of making staff more productive to assist the company in developing ultimately. Leaders serve as individuals who give workers the tools they need to succeed while also acting as the psychological captain. On the opposite side, management is the activity of organizing, directing, supervising, and regulating the actions of personnel and other assets to achieve organizational goals. According to Openstax, management is akin to bringing the notion of management into practice (Hassi, 2019). Successful businesses have well-functioning leadership teams. If that’s the case, organizations can realize their goal of becoming more effective in the current technical and global economic climate. Small business management is overseeing and guiding a company’s day-to-day operations. The specific tasks of small business administration vary per institution, but they often include hiring, absorbing, and retaining employees. It will most likely be necessary to make serious choices regarding hiring staff, choosing the best advertising methods, and so on (Jamieson and Donald, 2020). 

Hard vs. Soft Skills 

Soft skills are easily measured talents or advanced skills that can be taught. Hard skills are job-specific technological talents. Patient education and phlebotomy are two hard occupational skills for nurses. Computer abilities are an excellent illustration of hard skills for desk jockeys. Soft talents have been in high demand since at least 1980. Composing, thinking, mathematics, and the capacity to run computer programs are examples of complex abilities that can be taught and tested.

On the other hand, soft skills are the characteristics that enable a person to be a successful worker, such as good manners, interaction, attentiveness, and the ability to collaborate with others. One must first determine the job abilities the company seeks and then demonstrate those (Sopa et al., 2020). Employers seek evidence that you have the necessary hard and soft skills when filling out a job application. “I’m industrious, enthusiastic, and a terrific speaker,” for example, is akin to stating, “Tastes Good.” Intercultural abilities, interaction, teamwork, solving problems, and leadership are soft skills, whereas acquiring software components, forklift operations, marketing capabilities, phlebotomy, financial planning, shelf stocking, and IT skills are complex skills.

Leadership Theories 

Behavioral Theory 

The behavior of a leader is emphasized heavily in behavioral leadership theory. According to this view, strong leaders may be produced via apparent behavior rather than being inherited. This method has resulted in a wide range of management styles, although none are appropriate in every situation. A fantastic illustration of behavioral theory in action is examining the contrasts between a task-oriented and just a people-oriented leader (Seidel et al., 2019).

Contingency Theory

Contextual leadership theory, a contingency leadership principle, is concerned with a leader’s environment. The present climate directly influences a leader’s effectiveness. This notion examines various leadership styles and asserts that successful leaders may adapt their management style to the circumstances. It also implies that determining the exemplary leadership for a particular scenario may be the best course of action (Lord et al., 2020).

Great Man Theory 

The trait theory of leadership, often referred to as the fantastic man concept, asserts that outstanding managers are bred. They have distinguishing characteristics and abilities that cannot be explained or gained. Opponents argue that the bulk of the traits linked with this idea are male and do not correspond to the true nature of effective leadership (Seidel et al., 2019).

Management Theory

Monitoring, organization, and collective efficacy are essential aspects of transactional leadership. Transactional motivations and punishments are predicated on the premise that individuals only perform activities in exchange for goods. Employee morale can be harmed due to the consequences and penalties, which can have a detrimental influence on the firm (Lord et al., 2020). It might also be seen as a stagnant leadership style. This managerial style is exemplified by a superintendent who rewards employees who achieve a goal with money. Or a manager who has employees complete more documentation if they exceed a timetable.

Participative Theory 

Based on this management model, workers should be actively involved in making decisions in their organizations, also described as the democratic establishment. Under this method, everyone is intensely engaged in a team and organizational choices, with the leaders guiding the attack. This view, however, is not without debate; others claim that this leadership style makes leaders appear ineffectual or weak. Employees may be requested to attend a meeting with senior management to discuss a problem. They encourage staff to be honest and transparent in their communication. Following that, leaders decide based on both employee feedback and their judgment. Bill Gates is an example of the participatory theory.

Relationship Theory

The relationship theory of management places a premium on leaders who are focused on their interpersonal ties. These leaders are interested in making work as enjoyable as possible for as many people as possible. According to the study, this sort of leadership is the most effective for many employees. Managers that appreciate connections are more likely to get better results from their employees (Seidel et al., 2019). Relationship theory is shown by a manager who takes a new employee under her wing. She aims to help these individuals understand how they fit within the firm, encourage them to be open about their worries and problems, and build a positive work atmosphere.

Importance of Culture and the Role of Leaders and Managers

Leadership impacts worker morale and whether failures are viewed as chances for education or as setbacks that destroy the individual’s self-worth. Employees are empowered by management to accomplish a company’s goals and understand how important each of their efforts is in achieving those aspirations. Like a CEO, “Be the Change You Want to See” is a strong philosophy. You’re fully aware that you won’t be getting a sabbatical now that you’ve reached the top. Leaders have a profound grasp of how their company’s engine works, and they’ve learned to perceive each employee as more than a cog in the wheel. Holistic education improves memory by 80% and reflects the idea that failures are possibilities for learning and innovation (Cortellazzo et al., 2019). The desired quickly changed culture stems from a willingness to understand and seek rather than keep up with the Joneses. The societal welfare of both the worker and the customer emphasizes the effective leader. That method transforms a stale leader into one who inspires others. Professionals who specialize in five essential aspects of well-being are 81% less inclined to leave and look for new work. Companies can effectively satisfy the requirements of their employees by allowing more freedom, engaging in career training, and establishing better leave policies.

Critical Reflection on Leadership and Management 

It was recognized that cultivating a perception of regard for the leader and others who work with them will take some time since it has been suggested that learners are not often trained about higher levels of professionalism. Roleplays are the most successful exercise because they allow participants to recognize their skills and shortcomings while dealing with difficult circumstances and receiving information from the moderator. A  group leader does an excellent job of coordinating all of the group’s events and noting all of the paperwork. The Project Manager’s style of leadership or approach seems to shift from time to time. 


Each group member must have a clear understanding of the team’s goal to be adequate. Because he must determine the team’s direction, the leader must be somewhat dictatorial at first. The leader also enables people to take full advantage of the Internet’s technologies. Supervision, planning, and collective efficacy are essential aspects of leadership behavior. Some feel that such a type of management makes leaders appear ineffectual or feeble. Leaders have a profound grasp of how their company’s engine works, and they’ve learned to perceive each employee as more than a cog in the wheel.

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