Posted: February 17th, 2022
CRIME PREVENTION AND SECURITY
Table of Contents
Background/Literature Review.. 3
The elder abuse remains a worldwide issue obtaining recognition for its serious effect on the ageing population and the victims. The address of these risk factors might help practitioners to decrease abuse. [S1] The prevalence remains much more significant in the middle- and low-income nations, where the higher violence burden. Irrespective of the intensity of worldwide elder abuse, it remains an underappreciated public health issue. Elder abuse contains certain aspects which remain distinct from other violence forms. Such different parts deserve particular illumination that indulges the role of social isolation and cognitive impairment. Under elder abuse, variable terms describe the parameters for abuse, violence, self-neglect, neglect and elderly exploitation as restricted within a particular context. Mistreatment of an elder is defined as intentional actions which cause harm to an elder (vulnerable) by a caregiver for satisfying the fundamental requisites of elder or to prevent the elder from being harmed. [S2]
2. Report Description
The elder abuse refers to the violence towards older adults, often by the other members of a family (Storey, 2020). This issue is critical and is considered a social crime that has become a very noticeable issue in society (Storey, 2020). This issue needs the local welfare groups, health care service providers, and policymakers as they can implement strong policies to punish people who are committing these types of inhumane crimes (Yunus, Hairi and Choo, 2019). The general people also need to be made aware of elder abuse and the things that should be followed when similar care appears so that the authorities can take steps. This report will give an overview of the problem, identify the critical issues from the previous literature review, and provide future directions to prevent this ordeal in society. The recommendations will be made in the future trends to focus on the areas of concern.
Several significant aspects of elder abuse have been traced in the past research, although some factors, including the adult’s personal interest towards elders, is not highlighted. A true revelation for abusing elders is not illustrated for specific regions. Also, there is a missing link about the elderly individual’s authority in balancing the power; adequate description of the objective, suitable study design and response rate were not revealed. A comprehensive search was conducted for the research; a significant or relevant study has likely been missed. Research of elder abuse proves challenging to discern throughout disciplines. In the words of Collins et al. (2020), the lesser proof is available that supports an intervention toward preventing elder abuse. A few intervention trials have been performed to facilitate the operations of HCP and decrease their abuse. A large part of the research data has come from the US. Even recent progress in research and translation practice has failed to translate in particular research areas.
Mistreating the elders has become an ongoing problem which means violence between the older person and other members like adults in a family. Such a critical issue is considered a social crime that requires prevention by the social welfare agencies, health care service providers, the general public and policymakers (Pillemer et al. 2016). The given literature includes an overview and background of elder abuse and its origination from the 1990s has been derived. In addition, the rights of the elders to deal with the mistreatment have been explained, and the neglect and protective factors have been derived to understand the measures that impact the elder abuse. Moreover, a precise literature gap has been given to highlight the missing areas.
Elder abuse is linked with societal costs, severe consequences for individuals, which will also lead to serious public health problems (Pillemer et al. 2016). Elder abuse has been considered a serious problem in different nations’ policies like Australia, the US, and the countries that are making efforts to develop prevention services (Moir et al. 2017). Elder abuse is also associated with age cut-offs, which leads to obtaining dynamic measures for the adults (Dean 2019). However, there is also a feminist perspective of elder abuse that is also a factor of domestic violence (Duncan, Mason & Older Women’s Support Group 2011). Moreover, elder abuse is a broad social context whose main cause is the unequal distribution of power and resources and the ageism aspect.
Elder abuse as a problem for society from 1990 and prevention by the government
Elder abuse has been raised during 1990 and beyond that time period as it has been seen that maximum victims have isolated themselves from the community. In addition, the community nurses, workers of the welfares have worked more in these past years to deal with the mistreatment of the elders (Roberts 1993). Further, different strategies were developed during the 1990s by the government of New South Wales and South Australia and the Commonwealth to address the issue of elder abuse (Roberts 1993). It has also been anticipated that the risk of mortality, hospital treatment and morbidity have been raised due to elder abuse. Mover, factors like physical, sexual, neglect, financial and psychological are associated with elder abuse. As per the research, elder abuse in the UK, Israel, Spain and Canada are 2.6 percent, 18.4 percent, 29.3 percent and 18.4 percent, respectively, in the past years (Yon et al. 2017).
Figure 1: International prevalence rates according to elder abuse types
(Source: Pillemer et al. 2016)
Rights of older persons with respect to older abuse
The international regulation of marginalisation describes the domestic preservation of the rights of the elders. For example, Australia has emphasised the Age Discrimination act to develop strategies against elder abuse. In addition, the regulation of the Commonwealth has stressed the management and funding of the aged care services, and constitutions have been developed to take action against the guilt (Lacey 2014). Further, norms have been imposed on developing the culture to eradicate the abuse of elders. More guidelines are implemented to promote favorable ageing language and image in the community. Moreover, human rights cultures have been embedded to communicate the consequences of the mistreatment to the elders (Dong 2017).
Elder abuse and neglect factors and protection
The mistreatment of the elders and the related problematic factors vary globally. Such risk factors include Ageism, social marginalisation, time pressures, gender, and societal beliefs. Further, the losses of income, health, mental and physical competence of an individual have led to severe torture by the family members, specifically adults (Peri & Nouvelle-Zélande 2008). On the other hand, certain protective factors could help in such a situation by showing respect to the old persons. Also, certain NGOs focus on spreading information regarding the ageing process and the positive side of ageing (Storey 2020). In addition, the government endorses programs to communicate the financial need of the elders as it has been seen that nearly 6 percent of old people have faced financial elder abuse (Ford 2021). The independence of elders has been improved by the implication of education service and regarding abuse and elder rights (Peri, Fanslow & Hand 2009).
Alternative approaches to prevent elder abuses
Elder abuses can be prevented by analysing the prevention options and considerable challenges. Thus, the gap between the knowledge possessed about the elder are to be identified to develop relevant prevention strategies. Further, intentional elder abuse prevention program has to be conducted by incorporating maximum information and regulations related to the elder abuse (Monios et al. 2016). Certain programs can be promoted to restrict the mistreatment the elders in terms of aware the adults regarding the consequences of such social crime. For example, providing financial assistance, caregiver intervention, generating helplines to support the elders and taking legal action against the guilt, and providing shelter to the elder will diffuse the power of the adult and restrict them to mistreat the elders (Pillemer et al. 2016).
Though maximum aspects of elder abuse have been covered in the previous research papers, certain factors like the personal interest of the adults towards elders have not been mentioned. Also, the authority that should be possessed by the elderly person to maintain their power has been missed. Moreover, a prominent justification for the elder abuse concern has not been highlighted for different regions.
It can be concluded that elder abuse depends upon various factors like age, gender, income and other psychological aspects. Various rules are imposed by the government to deal with the abuse towards old people. In addition, elder abuse leads to mental illness, hospital admission, societal issues and family problems for which communities affect the most. Moreover, the issue of elder abuse has emerged beyond 1990 as the other family members believe that they possess more power and control as compared to the elders in the family.
5. Key Issues
Elder abuse has become a prominent issue in modern-day society (Yunus, Hairi and Choo, 2019). Elder abuse is of several types, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, financial abuse, and neglect (Yunus, Hairi and Choo, 2019). These issues are considered as social crimes and these issues are needed the attention of the policymakers in order to develop robust frameworks to create a healthy and ethical society (Dong, 2017).
The Australian community also believes elder abuse is an issue. However, most of the cases are not reported to the police and that is why the pieces of evidence are less of elder abuse in Australia. Still, the current societal analysis says 2% to 14% of older people in Australia face abuse in any terms like physical, mental, or neglecting behaviours (Fearing et al., 2017). The Australian government has implemented the Age Discrimination Act in order to develop and implement effective strategies to protect the elders from abuse (Fearing et al., 2017). Moreover, the Australian government has imposed the Australian network for the prevention of elder abuse, 1999, which seeks to prevent the abuse towards the elders in Australia (Joosten, Vrantsidis and Dow, 2017). These approaches of government reflect their concern in the context of this issue.
The Victorian community will support these recommendations as the Victorian government is also concerned about elder abuse in the province. As a response to the issue, the government has developed the elder abuse prevention and response initiative in 2006 (Dow, Gaffy and Hwang, 2018). Moreover, the Victorian government provides funding to the Ethnic Communities of Victoria (ECCV) to spread awareness about elder abuse with the collaboration with Senior Rights Victoria. In 2014, ECCV produced a short film on elder abuse to spread awareness dubbed in 14 languages (Dow, Gaffy and Hwang, 2018). The Victorian community has also developed residential aged care that provides services to the older people with their personal care and daily tasks (Dow, Gaffy and Hwang, 2018). All these ventures of the Victorian community suggest that they will be supporting these recommendations.
The elder’s mistreatment, along with concerned problematic issues, differs worldwide. Social marginalisation, gender, Ageism, societal beliefs, and time pressures are these risk factors. The losses in health, income, mental and physical competence have resulted in comprehensive domestic violence by family members, particularly the adults. Apart from that, elder abuse might destroy a family and social bonding, harm psychological and physical health, causing devastating economic loss and early death. In the view of Dow et al. (2020), elder abuse might happen to anybody irrespective of an individual’s sex, age, cultural or ethnic background or religion. It is referred to as elder abuse. The older adult’s mistreatment is done through strangers, family members, caregivers, health care generators, friends or caregivers.
Victims always remain anxious and fearful. Moreover, they have issues with belief and they focus on warning others. Several victims often suffer physical assault. Some of them are minor, like scratches, cuts, welts and bruises. Others remain much more serious, which may cause lasting in capabilities. Abuse, indulging exploitation and neglect remain experienced by 1 out of 10 people who reside at home. The most common elder abuse types are physical abuse, neglect, psychological or emotional abuse, sexual abuse and financial abuse. Financial abuse has become a quite hard-to-detect and widespread issue.
Anyone can steal the concerned individual’s financial information through the internet, email, or telephone. In the words of Kaspiew and Carson (2016), one needs to be cautious about sharing financial information over online or by phone. Moreover, financial abuse also indulges aged individuals’ belongings or money apart from economic exploitation, financial neglect and fraud of healthcare. The community needs to come together for solving their issues with adequate care. They should analyse and reflect on the elderly abuse issue for coming toward a solution. Problems have to be addressed before discussing solutions. The community does not believe that this remains an issue; however, the problem occurs much frequently. This problem deprives an individual of getting their moral or legal rights. Having a suitable action plan across the situation is better. Yes, Victorian communities can support such suggestions since they believe that it is primitive to make Victoria equal and safer. Even the aged people need to be valued; people need to respect their feelings. It will serve the veterans to find a suitable place within society.
Certain factors might enhance the risk of perpetrating or experiencing abuse of elders. In order to prevent elder abuse, there need to address and assess the attributes that put individuals at risk for avoiding violence. In the words of Lewis (2018), the caregivers and older adults need to be listened to for assessing their threats. People should be educated about the way of reporting and recognising elder abuse. They should know the primitive signs of abusing the elder and how it varies from the primary standard ageing method. It is necessary to know about the harmful consequences of elder abuse. In order to reduce or prevent elder abuse, there needs to be a discussion with the elderly and their caregivers on a regular basis. In the view of Nobels et al. (2018), the elders need to be engaged more in the Communities and they have to keep active as long as their health offers. The community resources need to be found and the financial abuse has to be considered. Elder abuse proves to be disastrous for loved ones and victims.
Increased dependence might result in more significant burnout and caretaker stress, enhancing the risk for elderly abuse. Active seniors decrease their mobility loss and improve overall health. Loved ones need to look for homes with policies and traits that tend to decrease elder abuse risk. Nursing homes might reduce elder abuse by developing solid patient procedures and policies. In the view of Qu et al. (2021), they should foster frequent visits from social workers and volunteers. Moreover, nursing homes should provide regular training to employees and staff on neglect and elder abuse issues. Nursing homes need to focus on installing quality systems of monitoring.
For prolific support carers, the government of Victoria committed about $42 million in the State budget of Victoria. Innovative programs have been delivered for supporting the wellbeing and health of carers. In 2021, the Victoria community opened the centre for Victorian Pride. The approach can support government work for updating legislation of Victoria which discriminates against Victorians+LGBTIQ. In the view of Roberto (2016), the community of Victoria can support the wellbeing of veterans, acknowledgement and recognition of service. Almost $6 million is being utilised for upgrading and restoring the Remembrance Shrine.
Elder abuse is a common and very noticeable issue in all nations. The Australian government has implemented the Age Discrimination Act to develop effective strategies to protect elder persons from abuse (Fearing et al., 2017). The government has also imposed an Australian network for the prevention of elder abuse in the year 1999 that seeks the prevention of the older adults from the different types of abuse like physical, emotional, sexual, financial, or getting neglecting behaviours from the other people in the family (Joosten, Vrantsidis and Dow, 2017). However, the network is only available to some extent leaving the more significant areas behind. This is a severe limitation of this framework. Moreover, community services are available for the older adults in Australia that provide services to the people after getting called. This is a highly operational service.
In the future, some necessary steps to ensure the dignity and security of elders should be taken. In today’s society, crime against older people has increased to a large extent. The crimes committed against the older adults are of various types that threaten the physical and psychological wellbeing of the elderly and compromise their dignity. Crimes against the elderly are of both a general and specific nature. Prevalent crimes include incidents such as theft, burglary and physical harm. These crimes can be prevented by increasing the general security of places such older people live. However, to avoid the specific crimes against the elderly people, specific legislation and elder abuse prevention programmes should be carried on. Such steps would ensure that a deterrent is created against crimes against the elderly by creating fear in the minds of the culprits. Apart from that, it is also to be taken care of that those people who do commit crimes against the elderly including abuse, do not escape unpunished. Thus, this is very important from the perspective of preventing crimes against the elderly. Furthermore, it is also essential that strict measures of vigilance and protection are offered by the public and law enforcement agencies to eliminate the chances of such crimes in the first place. Another critical area that demands attention in the future includes social support for the elderly, which is also related to the attitude of society towards the older adults and the way in which people behave with them.
The report has discussed the elder abuse along with the legal frameworks in Australia and their strengths and limitations on handling the problem. In the last section of the information, some recommendations are made to prevent the elders from the abuse in society. The recommendations reflect that the understanding of the issue is the significant aspect of the problem and everyone should be made aware by conducting sessions and seminars by the professionals. The recommendations suggested that older people need to be educated about the signs of abuse. They taught them to use social media so that they can connect to the community services at any point in time whenever something happens. This issue is very inhumane and it is imperative to ensure that no elders got addressed to abuse and it is the responsibility of the people and the government collectively.
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Dean, A 2019, Elder abuse : key issues and emerging evidence, Southbank, Victoria : Australian Institute of Family Studies.
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Dow, B., Gaffy, E. and Hwang, K., 2018. Elder abuse community action plan for Victoria. Parkville: National Ageing Research Institute. Available at, https://apo.org.au/sites/default/files/resource-files/2018-02/apo-nid132771.pdf [Accessed on 25.01.2022]
Dow, B., Vrantsidis, F., O’Brien, M., Joosten, M. and Gahan, L., 2020. Elder abuse in Australia. In International handbook of elder abuse and mistreatment (pp. 559-574). Springer, Singapore.
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Fearing, G., Sheppard, C.L., McDonald, L., Beaulieu, M. and Hitzig, S.L., 2017. A systematic review on community-based interventions for elder abuse and neglect. Journal of elder abuse & neglect, 29(2-3), pp.102-133. Available at, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lynn-Mcdonald/publication/317881074_A_systematic_review_on_community-based_interventions_for_elder_abuse_and_neglect/links/60bd36d392851cb13d83e38b/A-systematic-review-on-community-based-interventions-for-elder-abuse-and-neglect.pdf [Accessed on 25.01.2022]
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[S3]Make sub-heading for current prevention, short term and long-term activity and responsible for delivering
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