Posted: February 16th, 2022

Conflict Theory in Relation to Cyber Crime





Social welfare Policy

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Social welfare Policy

The COVID-19 pandemic had adverse impacts on local, regional and global levels. It affected different sectors; health, economy and community livelihoods. However, various governments had to intercede and help their citizens. There was less support from the government For Canadians living with disabilities and those with chronic illness. Unfortunately, there are low employment rates for Canadians living with disabilities, especially with the pandemic since the industry that they work was the most affected. The Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) was eligible for employed individuals or those that had been employed and received a certain amount in the previous year (Maroto, 2021). It affected a large percentage of Canadians living with disability due to the eligibility criteria since only a few were employed. Most employed Canadians living with disabilities had low paying jobs, non-standard work and unjustified jobs. Besides the Canada Emergency Response Benefit, the federal government response was a one-time $600 enhanced goods and services tax (GST) payment limited to those registered for the disability tax credit. A large percentage of Canadians living with disabilities were not registered for the disability tax credit. Limited support from the government then aggregated poverty levels and vulnerability among these individuals.

The policymaking process varies depending on the various models. In the value criteria model (Haskins and Gallagher, 1981; Wharf and Mackenzie), after finding the issue and possible policy options for the issue, the policymakers should find the best policy that reflects the value criteria. In the garbage can model (Kingdom, 1995), the policymaking process is a sequential process involving the problem, solution and politics. These three factors can function independently unless a disaster occurs that require integration of them all. Solving the disaster relies on public perception, the current political agenda and the individuals involved.

Rein’s model can be applied in the policymaking process. It involves the input, conversion process and output. Rein’s model encompasses the optimal among opposing values and ideologies of governing social and political influence. Individuals with high political power have a strong influence on the input. However, their influence is contrary to the real world; negatively impacting the social analysis process. The politicians are always self-centred, greatly affecting the citizens since the needs differ in societies. It is the citizens who elect these politicians and the politicians instead declare the vision of the country that reveals the various ideologies of the political party. The conversion process is made through a combination of implementation processe by organizations and operating principles such as equity and citizen participation. The output of social policy is considered as an outcome.

In sociology, there are various categories of social sciences theories. They can be Macro-level theories connected with large-scale matters and huge crowds of people; micro-level theories focus on very precise relationships among individuals or small groups, or grand theories elaborate huge-scale relations and responses to essential questions such as the formation of the society. The common theories are; conflict theory, symbolic interaction theory and structural theory. Both structural and conflict theory are macro, while symbolic is micro-level. Following Magalla, (2018), conflict theory elaborates a misunderstanding among two or more individuals in various situations of influence and authority on a specific matter. Individuals in positions of power tend to negatively exploit the resources impacting society. Structural theories highlight society’s influence above the individual and that the individual is greatly commended by society. Symbolic interaction defines the way individuals’ enthusiastically explain their social reality and recognize themselves through communication. 

Considering the three theories of sociology, the information in the article relates to conflict theory. The government is giving support to Canadian living with disabilities, but the support is limited. Unfortunately, only a few Canadians can access the Canada Emergency Response Benefit due to eligibility, . It then raises a misunderstanding between the government and the target group, Canadians living disabilities. Instances of inequalities arise among the individuals living with disabilities and those without.

The support given to Canadians living with disabilities was more connected to larger regional and partisan variations and individual experiences (Pettinicchio et al. 2021). Political views vary among individuals, and those in power are more supported than the opposition. According to Pettinicchio et al. (2021), some individuals were confident about the government doing its best, while others felt it was less support. Also, there was a positive response regarding support from individuals in the same political party as the government officials. The lack of support was from the opposition side.

Every citizen should have equal access to resources. Politicians can avoid instances of inequalities and differences due to various political ideologies. Politicians are great influencers in society, and equal opportunities should guarantee all individuals despite their situation. Also, in the Canadian policy, the priority should be those living with disabilities and chronic diseases during disasters since they are vulnerable. The governments should have a strategy and a clear policy to protect the vulnerable in t society. They can be given sustainable jobs with good-paying salaries.




Magalla, A. (2018). Conflict Theory in Relation to Cyber Crime Act NO. 14 of 2015. Available at SSRN 3292130.

Maroto, M. (2021, December 9). CERB helped Canadians during COVID-19 — but not the most vulnerable. Retrieved from

Pettinicchio, David, Michelle Maroto, Martin Lukk. 2021. Perceptions of Canadian Federal Policy Responses to COVID-19 among People with Disabilities and Chronic Health Conditions. Canadian Public Policy.



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