Posted: February 17th, 2022

Biological mechanisms responsible for increasing rates of allergic diseases in developed countries

Biological mechanisms responsible for increasing rates of allergic diseases in developed countries

What biological mechanisms of lifestyle changes increase the rate of allergic infections in industrialized countries?

            The increasing prevalence of allergic infections in western countries is caused by underlying mechanisms of immunoregulation or immunoglobin E antibodies IgE.  Allergies are exaggerated reactions by the immune system responding to specific foreign substances. Common allergens include; food allergy, insect bites and stings, medicine, grass and tree pollen, latex, household chemicals, mold, dust mites, and animal dander. Allergic reactions have swelling, shortness of breath, sneezing, running nose, itchy rash, and red eyes. These underlying mechanisms originate from changes in microbiota, predominantly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Lifestyle changes in developed countries contribute widely to raised numbers of allergic diseases through; genetics, modern dietary changes, modern medication like frequent use of antibiotics and acetaminophen, chronic illness, lifestyle diseases such as obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and hygiene hypothesis discussed below. 

            Allergic diseases are common in the current industrialized world with diverse risk factors. Heredity is the most significant factor in gender, age, allergen levels, dietary changes, and exposure to infections. Rates of allergy differ between adults and children; about 10% of both adults and children are affected by allergic rhinitis, about 50% of children are majorly affected by food allergies, while about 15% of people have atopic dermatitis occasionally. The possibility of anaphylaxis is common in patients with food allergy, a life-threatening reaction that impairs breathing, causing a sudden drop in blood pressure resulting in body shock. Food allergy occurs between 1.5% -2.9% of the population. Genetically, allergic reactions are hereditary; for instance, children are more likely to inherit allergic conditions from their parents Kay, A. Barry. “Allergy and allergic diseases.” New England Journal of Medicine 344.1 (2001): 30-37.. Correspondingly identical twins are also prone to having the same allergic infections. Higher rates of allergic diseases in urban areas are also due to altered exposure to microorganisms than rural areas. Atopic allergy produces exaggerated immunoglobin E immune response to harmful substances to the body; these atopic reactions are caused by localized antipathy response to allergen and show a vital hereditary component. Consumption of unchlorinated water in developed countries also gives rise to allergic diseases; unpurified waters have common parasites such as intestinal worms, which emit chemicals into the gut walls, thus interfering with the bloodstream, which suppresses the immune system and prevents the body from attacking the parasite. 

Developed countries have food processing industries that produce various types of food for consumption. Final products may be made of certain ingredients that one may be allergic to; foods such as milk, soy, peanuts, egg, wheat tree nuts, and fish are majorly known for causing allergic responses. Milk-protein allergies are widespread, especially in children; roughly 55% of dairy products such as cheese and milk protein reactions are immunoglobin E- mediated. About 15% of people cannot tolerate milk from goats, sheep, and cows. They also tend to react to beef and lactose malabsorption. Common food allergy in US countries is shellfish allergy which is the immune system response to a protein shellfish muscles identified as tropomyosin. This condition may deem life-threatening if no immediate action is taken Bach, Jean-François. “The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases.” New England journal of medicine 347.12 (2002): 911-920.. Peanut allergy. In genetic engineering, humans manipulate genomes indirectly to get the desired breed traits or phenotype; as a result, allergens may be transferred from one type of food to another, thus living rise to unidentified kinds of allergies. There is little information concerning the natural variation of allergens concentration in unmodified breeds. Food allergy rarely causes respiratory or asthma conditions. 


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